Adolphs J, Schmidt DK, Mousa SA et al. Thoracic Epidural Anesthesia Attenuates Hemorrhage-induced Impairment of Intestinal Perfusion in Rats. Anesthesiology 2003;99:685-92.

The authors used Sprague-Dawley rats with epidural catheters placed al L4 and threaded in to the T11/12 level. The rats were divided into 2 sets of 2 groups. Each set had a group that received 2% lidocaine for a T6-L4 blockade and the other (control) group received a corresponding amount of saline. On set of groups was used to examine the mucosa of the ileum and the other set the muscularis of the ileum. Continue Reading »